A Laboratory Project Agreement (PLA), also known as the Community Workforce Agreement, is a pre-employment collective agreement with one or more labour organizations that sets the terms and conditions for a given construction project.  Before workers are hired for the project, construction unions have the right to negotiate, determine wage rates and benefits for all workers working on the project concerned, and approve the provisions of the agreement.   The terms of the agreement apply to all contractors and subcontractors who offer success for the project and replace all existing collective agreements.  PLAs are used for both public and private projects and their specific provisions can be adapted by the signatory parties to the needs of a given project.  The agreement may contain provisions to prevent strikes, lockouts or other work stoppages during the duration of the project.  As a general rule, TTPs require that employees recruited for the project be returned to union rental premises, that self-employed workers in trade unions pay trade union rights for the duration of the project, and that the contractor comply with union rules on pensions, working conditions and dispute resolution.  In Sweden, about 90% of employees are subject to collective agreements, compared to 83% in the private sector (2017).   Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions. Sweden does not have legislation on minimum wages or legislation extending collective agreements to disorganised employers. Unseated employers can sign replacement agreements directly with unions, but many do not.
The Swedish model of self-regulation applies only to jobs and workers covered by collective agreements.  On February 6, 2009, President Barack Obama signed Executive Order 13502, which asks federal authorities to consider the use of LTOs for federal construction projects that cost $25 million or more.  The purpose of this act was to repeal Bush`s executive orders in 13202 and 13208, over the previous eight years, which had banned mandatory PLAs for federal and federal projects.  The Obama Order states that federal authorities may require a PLA if such an agreement meets the federal government`s objectives in terms of profitability and efficiency. Under the terms of the contract, contractors cannot compete for contracts subject to PLA, but they must accept the different conditions contained in each ALP to win a federal contract and build a project.  A significant change from the 2001 order is that the Obama order, by removing bush sponsors from federal funds, such as public, local and private owners, allows for the use of public construction projects of all sizes. The order does not encourage or instruct federal aid recipients to use a government-mandated PLA.  In Finland, collective agreements are generally valid. This means that a collective agreement in an industry becomes a general legal minimum for an individual`s employment contract, whether or not he or she is unionized.
For this condition to apply, half of the workers in this sector must be unionized and therefore support the agreement. Collective agreements in Germany are legally binding, which is accepted by the public, and this is not a cause for concern.  [Failed verification] While in the United Kingdom there was (and probably still is) an „she and us“ attitude in labour relations, the situation is very different in post-war Germany and in some other northern European countries.